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Joint Pain

What is Joint Pain ?

Joint pain refers to discomfort, soreness, or aching sensations in one or more of the body’s joints. Joints are the areas where two or more bones meet, and they allow for movement and flexibility in the body. Joint pain can range from mild to severe and may be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term).

Joint discomfort is a widespread issue, frequently experienced in areas like the hands, feet, hips, knees, or spine. The pain may be persistent or intermittent, characterized by sensations of stiffness, aching, or soreness. Some individuals describe it as a burning, throbbing, or even a “grating” feeling. Additionally, joints can feel stiff upon waking in the morning but tend to improve with movement and activity. However, excessive activity can exacerbate the pain.

The impact of joint pain extends beyond mere discomfort; it can hinder the proper functioning of the affected joint and impede one’s ability to perform everyday tasks. In severe cases, joint pain can significantly diminish the overall quality of life. Therefore, treatment should not only target pain relief but also aim to restore and enhance the individual’s ability to engage in their regular activities and functions.


Common characteristics of joint pain include:

  1. Location: Joint pain can occur in any joint in the body, such as the knees, hips, shoulders, elbows, wrists, fingers, and ankles.
  2. Duration: It may be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term). Acute joint pain often results from injury or a specific event, while chronic joint pain may be associated with underlying medical conditions.
  3. Symptoms: Joint pain can be accompanied by other symptoms, such as swelling, redness, warmth, stiffness, and decreased range of motion in the affected joint.
  4. Triggers: Joint pain may be triggered or worsened by certain activities, weather changes, or movements that stress the affected joint.

Who May Have Joint Pain ?

Joint pain can affect individuals of all ages and backgrounds, but some factors increase the likelihood of experiencing joint pain. These risk factors can include:

  1. Age: Joint pain becomes more common as people get older, primarily due to the natural wear and tear on joints over time. Conditions like osteoarthritis are more prevalent in older adults.
  2. Gender: Certain types of joint pain may be more common in one gender than the other. For instance, conditions like rheumatoid arthritis are more frequent in women, while gout is more common in men.
  3. Genetics: A family history of joint conditions or arthritis can increase the risk of developing similar issues.
  4. Obesity: Excess body weight places added stress on weight-bearing joints, such as the knees and hips, and is a significant risk factor for joint pain and osteoarthritis.
  5. Previous Joint Injuries: People who have experienced joint injuries, such as sports-related injuries or accidents, may be more prone to developing joint pain or arthritis in those affected joints.
  6. Occupation and Activities: Certain professions or recreational activities that involve repetitive joint movements, heavy lifting, or high-impact activities can increase the risk of joint pain and injuries.
  7. Medical Conditions: Underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes, autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, lupus), and metabolic disorders (e.g., gout), can predispose individuals to joint pain.
  8. Hormonal Changes: Hormonal fluctuations, such as those occurring during menopause, can contribute to joint pain in some individuals.
  9. Sedentary Lifestyle: Lack of physical activity and poor conditioning can weaken the muscles surrounding joints, leading to increased joint stress and pain.
  10. Dietary Choices: A diet high in purines (found in certain foods and beverages) can increase the risk of gout, a type of joint pain.
  11. Medications: Some medications, including corticosteroids, can increase the risk of joint issues as a side effect.
  12. Infections: Certain infections, such as Lyme disease, can lead to joint pain as a symptom.

It’s essential to note that while these factors may increase the likelihood of experiencing joint pain, they do not guarantee that an individual will develop joint problems.

What are Symptoms of Joint Pain ?

Symptoms of joint pain can vary depending on the underlying cause and the affected joint or joints. Common symptoms associated with joint pain include:

  1. Pain: The primary symptom of joint pain is discomfort, soreness, or pain in one or more joints. The pain can range from mild to severe and may be constant or intermittent.
  2. Location: Joint pain can occur in various joints throughout the body, including the knees, hips, shoulders, elbows, wrists, fingers, ankles, and spine.
  3. Stiffness: Many people with joint pain experience stiffness in the affected joint, especially in the morning or after periods of inactivity. This stiffness can make it challenging to move the joint smoothly.
  4. Swelling: Inflammation of the joint can lead to swelling or enlargement of the affected area.
  5. Redness and Warmth: Inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis or gout, can cause redness and warmth in the affected joint.
  6. Limited Range of Motion: Joint pain may result in a decreased ability to move the joint fully or perform certain movements.
  7. Weakness: Pain and inflammation in the joint can lead to muscle weakness in the surrounding area.
  8. Grating Sensation: Some individuals describe a “grating” or “creaking” sensation when moving the affected joint, particularly in cases of osteoarthritis.
  9. Pain with Activity: Joint pain may worsen with specific movements, activities, or weight-bearing, depending on the underlying cause.
  10. Pain at Rest: In some cases, joint pain may be present even when the joint is at rest, which can disrupt sleep and daily activities.
  11. Tenderness: The affected joint may be tender to the touch.
  12. Fatigue: Chronic joint pain can be exhausting, leading to overall fatigue and decreased energy levels.
  13. Fever and Chills: In cases where joint pain is due to an infection or systemic illness, individuals may experience fever and chills.
  14. Skin Changes: Conditions like psoriatic arthritis may involve skin changes, such as psoriasis plaques.
  15. Pain Radiating to Surrounding Areas: Joint pain may radiate to nearby muscles, tendons, or ligaments, causing referred pain.
  16. Crepitus: In some cases, joint pain can be accompanied by a crackling or popping sound when moving the joint.

What are the Causes of Joint Pain?

Joint pain can have numerous causes, and it often results from conditions or factors that affect the joints, bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or surrounding tissues. The specific cause of joint pain can vary depending on the individual and the affected joint(s). Common causes of joint pain include:

  1. Osteoarthritis: This is the most common form of arthritis and occurs due to the breakdown of joint cartilage over time. It often affects weight-bearing joints like the knees, hips, and spine.
  2. Rheumatoid Arthritis: An autoimmune condition where the body’s immune system attacks the synovium (lining of the membranes that surround the joints), leading to joint inflammation, pain, and damage.
  3. Gout: Gout is caused by the buildup of uric acid crystals in the joints, typically affecting the big toe, but it can also involve other joints.
  4. Lupus: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that can cause joint pain, among other symptoms.
  5. Infectious Arthritis: Bacterial, viral, or fungal infections can lead to joint inflammation and pain. Examples include septic arthritis and Lyme disease.
  6. Tendinitis: Inflammation of tendons (the tissues that connect muscles to bones) can cause joint pain. Common types include Achilles tendinitis and tennis elbow.
  7. Bursitis: Inflammation of the bursae (fluid-filled sacs that cushion and lubricate joints) can lead to joint pain. Examples include trochanteric bursitis in the hip and subacromial bursitis in the shoulder.
  8. Autoimmune Diseases: Conditions like ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis are autoimmune disorders that can result in joint pain and inflammation.
  9. Trauma and Injury: Joint pain can occur following injuries such as fractures, dislocations, sprains, and strains.
  10. Overuse or Repetitive Stress: Repetitive motions or overuse of a joint, especially in sports or work-related activities, can lead to joint pain. This may be seen in conditions like patellofemoral pain syndrome (runner’s knee).
  11. Hormonal Changes: Hormonal fluctuations, such as those that occur during menopause, can contribute to joint pain in some individuals.
  12. Metabolic Disorders: Conditions like diabetes and hemochromatosis can affect joint health and lead to pain.
  13. Medications: Some medications, such as certain antibiotics or statins, can have joint pain as a side effect.
  14. Cancers: Rarely, joint pain can be a symptom of certain cancers that affect the bone or joint tissues.
  15. Genetic Factors: Some genetic conditions, like Ehlers-Danlos syndrome or Marfan syndrome, can affect joint stability and lead to pain.
  16. Obesity: Excess body weight places added stress on weight-bearing joints, contributing to joint pain, particularly in the knees, hips, and lower back.
  17. Other Medical Conditions: Various medical conditions, including thyroid disorders, kidney disease, and vascular conditions, can have joint pain as a symptom.

It’s important to note that multiple factors can contribute to joint pain, and the cause may involve a combination of factors.

The Diagnosis of Joint Pain

The diagnosis of joint pain involves a comprehensive evaluation by a healthcare provider to determine the underlying cause of the pain. The diagnostic process typically includes the following steps:

  1. Medical History: The healthcare provider will begin by taking a detailed medical history. They will ask about the location, duration, and characteristics of the joint pain. Information about any past injuries, medical conditions, surgeries, medications, family history of joint problems, and lifestyle factors (such as occupation or sports activities) will be gathered.
  2. Physical Examination: A physical examination will be conducted to assess the affected joint(s). The healthcare provider will look for signs of inflammation, such as swelling, redness, warmth, and tenderness. They will also evaluate the joint’s range of motion and assess nearby muscles and ligaments.
  3. Imaging Studies: Various imaging tests may be ordered to visualize the affected joint and surrounding structures. Common imaging studies include:
    • X-rays: X-rays can reveal changes in the bones and joint structure. They are useful for diagnosing conditions like osteoarthritis and fractures.
    • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): MRI provides detailed images of soft tissues, such as cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. It is valuable for evaluating conditions like ligament tears and inflammatory arthritis.
    • CT Scan (Computed Tomography): CT scans can provide detailed images of the bones and are often used to assess complex fractures or joint abnormalities.
    • Ultrasound: Ultrasound is used to examine soft tissues and the presence of fluid in or around the joint, which can be seen in conditions like bursitis.
  4. Laboratory Tests: Blood tests may be conducted to check for markers of inflammation or specific antibodies associated with autoimmune diseases. Common blood tests for joint pain include:
    • Complete Blood Count (CBC): To assess for signs of infection or inflammation.
    • Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and C-Reactive Protein (CRP): Elevated levels of these markers can indicate inflammation.
    • Rheumatoid Factor and Anti-CCP Antibodies: These tests help diagnose rheumatoid arthritis.
    • Uric Acid: To evaluate for gout.
    • Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA): To screen for autoimmune disorders like lupus.
  5. Joint Aspiration: In some cases, a joint aspiration (arthrocentesis) may be performed. This involves removing a small amount of synovial fluid from the joint using a needle and syringe. The fluid can be analyzed for signs of infection, inflammation, or crystals (as seen in gout).
  6. Specialized Tests: Depending on the suspected cause of joint pain, specialized tests may be ordered. For example, tests for Lyme disease, tuberculosis, or specific autoimmune markers may be performed based on clinical suspicion.
  7. Medical Evaluation: In complex cases or when the diagnosis is unclear, a referral to a rheumatologist, orthopedic specialist, or other appropriate specialist may be necessary for further evaluation and diagnosis.

The specific diagnostic approach will depend on the individual’s symptoms, medical history, physical examination findings, and the suspected cause of joint pain.

How is Joint Pain Treated?

The treatment of joint pain depends on its underlying cause. Once the cause has been identified through proper diagnosis, a healthcare provider can recommend an appropriate treatment plan. Here are some common approaches to treating joint pain:

  1. Pain Medications:
    • Over-the-Counter (OTC) Pain Relievers: Non-prescription pain relievers like acetaminophen (Tylenol) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve) can help manage mild to moderate joint pain and reduce inflammation.
    • Prescription Medications: In cases of more severe pain or specific conditions, a healthcare provider may prescribe stronger pain medications or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for autoimmune-related joint pain.
  2. Physical Therapy: Physical therapy can be highly effective for joint pain. A physical therapist can design a customized exercise program to strengthen muscles, improve joint flexibility, and reduce pain. They may also use modalities such as ultrasound or electrical stimulation.
  3. Occupational Therapy: Occupational therapists can teach joint protection techniques and provide adaptive strategies to help individuals with joint pain perform everyday tasks more comfortably.
  4. Lifestyle Modifications:
    • Weight Management: Maintaining a healthy weight or losing excess weight can significantly reduce the stress on weight-bearing joints and alleviate joint pain, especially in cases of osteoarthritis.
    • Dietary Changes: For conditions like gout, dietary modifications to reduce purine-rich foods and alcohol intake can help prevent flare-ups.
    • Exercise: Low-impact exercises like swimming, cycling, and yoga can improve joint mobility and reduce pain.
    • Joint Protection: Using assistive devices, such as joint braces or splints, can provide support and reduce strain on affected joints.
    • Ergonomic Adjustments: Modifying workstations and home environments to reduce joint stress and strain can be helpful.
  5. Injections:
    • Corticosteroid Injections: For severe inflammation and pain, healthcare providers may administer corticosteroid injections directly into the affected joint to reduce inflammation.
    • Hyaluronic Acid Injections: These injections are used to lubricate and cushion the joint and are typically used for knee osteoarthritis.
  6. Joint Aspiration: In cases of joint pain due to fluid accumulation or infection, draining excess synovial fluid through joint aspiration can provide relief.
  7. Biological Therapies: Some autoimmune-related joint conditions may be treated with biologic medications, which target specific molecules involved in the inflammatory process.
  8. Surgery: Surgical options may be considered in cases of severe joint damage or when conservative treatments are ineffective. Joint surgery may involve:
    • Joint Replacement: Total joint replacement (e.g., hip or knee replacement) can relieve pain and restore joint function.
    • Arthroscopy: A minimally invasive procedure used to diagnose and treat joint problems like meniscus tears or damaged cartilage.
    • Synovectomy: Surgical removal of the inflamed synovial membrane in cases of persistent joint inflammation.
  9. Complementary and Alternative Therapies: Some people find relief from joint pain through complementary therapies such as acupuncture, chiropractic care, or herbal supplements. However, it’s essential to consult with a healthcare provider before trying these approaches.
  10. Disease-Specific Treatments: Conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or gout may require disease-specific treatments and medications prescribed by a specialist.

Treatment plans are highly individualized, and the choice of treatment depends on the type and severity of joint pain, the underlying condition, and the patient’s overall health and preferences.

What are the Pain Medications for Joint Pain ?

Pain medications for joint pain can help alleviate discomfort and improve the quality of life for individuals with various joint conditions. The choice of pain medication depends on the underlying cause, the severity of pain, and individual factors such as medical history and allergies. Here are some common pain medications used for joint pain:

  1. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs):
    • Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin): An OTC NSAID that reduces pain and inflammation.
    • Naproxen (Aleve): Another OTC NSAID used to relieve pain and reduce inflammation.
    • Prescription NSAIDs: Stronger NSAIDs, such as diclofenac or meloxicam, may be prescribed by a healthcare provider for more severe joint pain.
  2. Acetaminophen (Tylenol): An OTC pain reliever that helps reduce pain but does not have anti-inflammatory properties. It can be useful for mild to moderate joint pain.
  3. Corticosteroids: These anti-inflammatory medications can be administered orally or via injection. In cases of severe joint inflammation, corticosteroid injections directly into the joint can provide relief.
  4. Opioid Pain Medications: Opioids, such as oxycodone or hydrocodone, are prescribed for severe pain when other medications are ineffective. However, they are typically reserved for short-term use due to the risk of dependence and side effects.
  5. Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs): DMARDs are used to treat autoimmune-related joint conditions like rheumatoid arthritis. They help slow the progression of the disease and reduce joint pain and inflammation. Examples include methotrexate, sulfasalazine, and hydroxychloroquine.
  6. Biologic Medications: Biologics are a type of DMARD used for autoimmune-related joint conditions when other treatments have not been effective. They target specific molecules in the immune system to reduce inflammation and pain.
  7. Hyaluronic Acid Injections: For osteoarthritis, hyaluronic acid injections are used to lubricate and cushion the joint, providing pain relief.
  8. Muscle Relaxants: In some cases, muscle relaxants may be prescribed to relieve muscle spasms and pain associated with joint conditions.
  9. Topical Analgesics: Creams, gels, or patches containing analgesic medications, such as lidocaine or capsaicin, can provide localized pain relief when applied directly to the skin over the affected joint.

Surgeries for Joint Pain ?

Surgery can be an option for treating joint pain, especially when conservative treatments are ineffective, and joint damage or dysfunction is severe. The choice of surgical procedure depends on the underlying cause of the joint pain and the specific condition of the joint. Here are some common types of surgeries used to treat joint pain:

  1. Joint Replacement Surgery: This is one of the most common surgical treatments for severe joint pain caused by conditions like osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or joint degeneration. In joint replacement surgery, the damaged joint is replaced with an artificial joint (prosthesis) made of metal, plastic, or ceramic. The most common joint replacement surgeries include:
    • Total Hip Replacement (Total Hip Arthroplasty): Replaces the damaged hip joint with an artificial one.
    • Total Knee Replacement (Total Knee Arthroplasty): Replaces the damaged knee joint with an artificial one.
    • Total Shoulder Replacement (Total Shoulder Arthroplasty): Replaces the damaged shoulder joint with an artificial one.
    • Total Ankle Replacement (Total Ankle Arthroplasty): Replaces the damaged ankle joint with an artificial one.
  2. Arthroscopy: Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used to diagnose and treat joint problems. It involves making small incisions and inserting a tiny camera (arthroscope) and specialized surgical instruments into the joint. Arthroscopy can be used to:
    • Remove loose cartilage or bone fragments.
    • Repair torn ligaments or tendons.
    • Trim damaged cartilage.
    • Treat conditions like meniscus tears or rotator cuff tears.
  3. Synovectomy: A synovectomy is the surgical removal of the synovium, the lining of the joint capsule. It is often performed in cases of persistent joint inflammation, such as in rheumatoid arthritis, to reduce pain and swelling.
  4. Joint Fusion (Arthrodesis): In this procedure, the joint surfaces are removed and the bones are fused together. Joint fusion is typically used when the joint is severely damaged and cannot be preserved. It can provide pain relief but limits joint motion.
  5. Osteotomy: An osteotomy involves cutting and reshaping the bones around a joint to improve alignment and reduce joint stress. It is sometimes used to treat joint pain caused by conditions like osteoarthritis.
  6. Ligament or Tendon Repair: Surgical repair of torn ligaments or tendons may be necessary in cases of joint instability or severe pain. Procedures like ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction in the knee or rotator cuff repair in the shoulder are examples.
  7. Revision Joint Replacement: If a previously implanted artificial joint becomes loose or wears out over time, a revision joint replacement surgery may be required to replace or repair the existing prosthesis.
  8. Cartilage Restoration: Procedures like microfracture, autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), or osteochondral autograft transplantation (OATS) can be used to repair or regenerate damaged joint cartilage.

How to Prevent Joint Pain ?

Preventing joint pain involves adopting healthy lifestyle habits and practices that can help protect and maintain the health of your joints. While not all joint pain can be entirely prevented, especially in cases of genetic or autoimmune conditions, the following strategies can reduce the risk of joint pain and promote joint health:

  1. Maintain a Healthy Weight: Excess body weight places additional stress on weight-bearing joints, such as the knees, hips, and lower back. Maintaining a healthy weight or losing excess pounds can reduce the risk of joint pain and slow the progression of joint conditions like osteoarthritis.
  2. Stay Physically Active: Regular exercise is crucial for joint health. It helps strengthen the muscles around the joints, improve joint flexibility, and maintain healthy cartilage. Low-impact activities like swimming, walking, and cycling are gentle on the joints and can be highly beneficial.
  3. Practice Joint-Friendly Activities: Choose activities and exercises that are easy on the joints. Avoid high-impact sports or activities that may increase the risk of injury or joint damage.
  4. Warm Up and Stretch: Before engaging in physical activity or exercise, warm up your muscles and joints with gentle stretching. Stretching helps improve joint flexibility and reduce the risk of injury.
  5. Use Proper Technique: If you engage in sports or weightlifting, use proper technique to avoid joint strain and injury. Consider working with a coach or trainer to ensure you are using correct form.
  6. Protect Your Joints: Wear appropriate protective gear, such as knee pads or braces, when participating in activities that carry a higher risk of joint injury, like sports or recreational activities.
  7. Ergonomic Workstations: Ensure your workplace is ergonomically designed to minimize joint stress and strain. Adjust your desk, chair, and computer setup to promote proper posture.
  8. Joint-Friendly Footwear: Choose supportive and well-fitting footwear that provides cushioning and arch support. Proper shoes can reduce stress on the knees, hips, and spine.
  9. Balanced Diet: Eat a balanced diet rich in nutrients that support joint health. Omega-3 fatty acids, found in fish and flaxseed, can help reduce inflammation. Calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone health.
  10. Stay Hydrated: Proper hydration helps maintain the elasticity and lubrication of joint cartilage. Drink plenty of water throughout the day.
  11. Avoid Overuse: Be mindful of overusing or overloading your joints, especially during repetitive activities. Take breaks and vary your movements to prevent strain.
  12. Manage Stress: Chronic stress can contribute to muscle tension and joint pain. Practice stress-reduction techniques like meditation, deep breathing, or yoga.
  13. Protect Against Infection: Some joint pain is caused by infections, such as Lyme disease. Take precautions to prevent tick bites and seek prompt treatment for infections.
  14. Regular Check-Ups: Attend regular medical check-ups to monitor your joint health and identify any early signs of joint conditions.
  15. Use Supplements: Consult with a healthcare provider about supplements like glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, which may support joint health in some individuals.
  16. Quit Smoking: Smoking is associated with an increased risk of joint problems. Quitting smoking can have a positive impact on joint health.
glucosamine chondroitin
glucosamine chondroitin

bio-omega3 / fish oil
bio-omega3 / fish oil

How to Relieve Joint Pain Naturally?

Nutrition and natural products can play a role in relieving pain, particularly for certain types of pain and underlying conditions. It’s important to note that while these approaches may offer relief, they are not a substitute for medical evaluation and treatment when necessary.

Always consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new dietary or supplement regimen.

Here are some nutrition and natural products that are commonly used to help relieve pain:

  1. Turmeric and Curcumin: Curcumin, a compound found in turmeric, has anti-inflammatory properties and is often used to alleviate pain associated with conditions like osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. It can be taken as a supplement or incorporated into the diet.
  2. Ginger: Ginger has anti-inflammatory and analgesic (pain-relieving) properties and is known to help with various types of pain, including menstrual cramps and muscle soreness. It can be consumed as ginger tea, added to dishes, or taken in supplement form.
  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Omega-3 fatty acids, found in fish oil and certain plants like flaxseed and chia seeds, have anti-inflammatory effects and may help reduce pain and stiffness in conditions like rheumatoid arthritis.
  4. Capsaicin: Capsaicin, the active compound in chili peppers, is often used topically in creams or patches to relieve pain associated with conditions like neuropathy and osteoarthritis.
  5. Magnesium: Magnesium supplements or magnesium-rich foods (e.g., leafy greens, nuts, and seeds) may help reduce muscle cramps and tension, making them useful for muscle pain and headaches.
  6. Boswellia: Boswellia serrata extract, also known as Indian frankincense, is believed to have anti-inflammatory properties and is used to alleviate joint pain and arthritis symptoms.
  7. Willow Bark: Willow bark contains salicin, a natural compound similar to aspirin. It has been used for centuries to reduce pain and inflammation, especially for headaches and minor aches.
  8. Devil’s Claw: Devil’s claw is an herbal remedy that has been used for joint pain and osteoarthritis. It may help reduce inflammation and improve mobility.
  9. Arnica: Arnica is a homeopathic remedy used topically in creams or gels to relieve muscle and joint pain, as well as bruising and swelling.
  10. CBD (Cannabidiol): CBD is a non-psychoactive compound found in cannabis and hemp plants. It has gained popularity for its potential to reduce pain and inflammation in conditions such as chronic pain, neuropathy, and arthritis. CBD products are available in various forms, including oils, creams, and capsules.
  11. Peppermint Oil: Peppermint oil applied topically or inhaled through aromatherapy may help alleviate tension headaches and migraines.
  12. Lavender Oil: Lavender oil is used in aromatherapy to promote relaxation and may help with headaches, migraines, and muscle tension.
  13. Valerian Root: Valerian root is known for its calming effects and is used to alleviate pain related to muscle tension and anxiety.
  14. Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) is an unsaturated fatty acid derived from plant seed oils, such as evening primrose and borage seed oils. A number of studies have suggested that it reduces inflammation and produces improvement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Improvements include decreases in the duration of morning stiffness, joint pain and swelling, and the ability to reduce other medication usage (Rothman, 1995; Zurier, 1996; Leventhal, 1993). In addition GLA’s may be useful in the preventive approach to migraine headaches by reducing the severity, frequency and duration of migraine attacks (Wagner, 1997). Since GLA is an omega-6 fatty acid, it is optimally taken with a balance of omega-3s.
  15. 5-hydroxytrytophan is the precursor to tryptophan, which is converted to serotonin, a neurotransmitter that plays a role in pain and inflammation. Increasing tyrptophan levels in the body may help to reduce chronic pain and reduce episodes of migraine headaches in those who are predisposed to migraines (Nicolodi, 1999). Tryptophan is no longer available as a dietary supplement due to a history of contamination. However, foods that contain high levels of tryptophan include salmon, tuna, garbanzo beans, cashew nuts, sunflower seeds, turkey, yogurt, bananas and dairy products.
  16. Vitamin deficiencies are associated with a variety of diseases, some of which (like neuropathy) may be painful. The recommended daily allowances of vitamins are calculated to prevent deficiency, and a vitamin supplement should be taken if the ability of the diet to provide these substances is in question.
  17. Minerals also may have therapeutic uses. Zinc and copper may help in wound healing and reduce pain and inflammation (Honkanen, 1991, Lansdown, 1996). Magnesium is analgesic for neuropathic pain in animal studies (Begon, 2002) and has shown clinical benefit in the treatment of migraine, cluster and tension headaches (Peikert, 1996; Mauskop, 1996; Demirkaya, 2001). It is unclear whether magnesium can reduce pain related to surgery (Hoinig, 1998; Ko, 2001). Magnesium’s mechanism of action in pain management may be partly due to NMDA blockade (Begon, 2002).
  18. Enzymes are substances that influence chemical reactions. Bromelain, a complex enzyme of pineapple, is commonly used in Europe as an anti-inflammatory compound for many forms of musculoskeletal injury, arthritis, cramps, post-surgery and post-traumatic swelling. It has been shown to be beneficial in reducing swelling, inflammation and pain by blocking the creation of proinflammatory compounds like prostaglandins, decreasing the production of kinins, and inhibiting fibrin production (Tasman, 1964). Although it is generally well tolerated, it can aggravate ulcers or esophagitis, and can interact with blood thinners (Meletis, 2000).
  19. Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate may favorably influence cartilage and have been studied as treatments for arthritis. Although some studies have had negative results, others suggest significant benefit from both these agents (McAlindon, 2000). Glucosamine sulfate has been shown to reduce symptoms of osteoarthritis (Reginster, 2001; Muller-Fassbender, 1994) and temporomandibular joint pain (Thie, 2001). The onset of improvement may take from one to three months; side effects are mild (Fillmore, 1999). Chondroitin sulfate was shown to be significantly superior to placebo in reducing pain in osteoarthritic joints, producing at least 50% improvement compared to placebo (Leeb, 2000). Further studies are needed to clarify its role in the treatment of arthritis and other pain conditions.
  20. Proanthocyanidins – Proanthocyanidins (tannins) belong to a group of chemical compounds called “flavonoids”, which provide a variety of beneficial functions for humans (e.g., their well-known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory affect).
  21. Proanthocyanidins – Proanthocyanidins (tannins) belong to a group of chemical compounds called “flavonoids”, which provide a variety of beneficial functions for humans (e.g., their well-known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory affect).
  22. Melatonin – Melatonin is a naturally occurring hormone that is synthesized by the pineal gland and regulated by the environmental light/dark cycle (Kaur 2011).
  23. Methylsulfonylmethane – Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is an organic sulfur-containing compound (Debbi 2011) found in a variety of fruits, vegetables, grains, and meats. Among its many beneficial functions, MSM has been shown to display anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties (AMR 2003).
  24. Korean angelica – Decursinol is a medicinal compound found in the roots of the Korean flower called Angelica gigasNakai (Korean angelica) (Song 2011).
  25. DL-Phenylalanine – While L-phenylalanine is a naturally occurring amino acid that is a precursor to dopamine and related neurotransmitters (Fernstrom 2007), D-phenylalanine appears to slow metabolic breakdown of endogenous opioids (Kitade 1990)



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