Varicose Veins

Varicose veins are swollen, twisted veins that you can see just under the skin. They usually occur in the legs, but also can form in other parts of the body. Hemorrhoids are a type of varicose vein.

Your veins have one-way valves that help keep blood flowing toward your heart. If the valves are weak or damaged, blood can back up and pool in your veins. This causes the veins to swell, which can lead to varicose veins.Photograph of a female doctor discussing medication with a female patient

Varicose veins are very common. You are more at risk if you are older, a female, obese, don’t exercise or have a family history. They can also be more common in pregnancy.

Doctors often diagnose varicose veins from a physical exam. Sometimes you may need additional tests.

Exercising, losing weight, elevating your legs when resting, and not crossing them when sitting can help keep varicose veins from getting worse. Wearing loose clothing and avoiding long periods of standing can also help. If varicose veins are painful or you don’t like the way they look, your doctor may recommend procedures to remove them.

Vegetarian Diet

A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the following groups:

  • The vegan diet, which excludes all meat and animal products
  • The lacto vegetarian diet, which includes plant foods plus dairy products
  • The lacto-ovo vegetarian diet, which includes both dairy products and eggs

People who follow vegetarian diets can get all the nutrients they need. However, they must be careful to eat a wide variety of foods to meet their nutritional needs. Nutrients vegetarians may need to focus on include protein, iron, calcium, zinc and vitamin B12.

Photograph of various fruits and vegetables

Vertebra

In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.

The basic configuration of a vertebra varies; the large part is the body, and the central part is the centrum. The upper and lower surfaces of the vertebra body give attachment to the intervertebral discs. The posterior part of a vertebra forms a vertebral arch, in eleven parts, consisting of two pedicles, two laminae, and sevenprocesses. The laminae give attachment to the ligamenta flava (ligaments of the spine). There are vertebral notches formed from the shape of the pedicles, which form the intervertebral foramina when the vertebrae articulate. These foramina are the entry and exit conducts for the spinal nerves. The body of the vertebra and the vertebral arch form the vertebral foramen, the larger, central opening that accommodates the spinal canal, which encloses and protects the spinal cord.

Vertebrae articulate with each other to give strength and flexibility to the spinal column, and the shape at their back and front aspects determines the range of movement. Structurally, vertebrae are essentially alike across the vertebrate species, with the greatest difference seen between an aquatic animal and other vertebrate animals. As such, vertebrates take their name from the vertebrae that compose the vertebral column.

Vita Antioxidant™

Usana CellSentials – With Usana InCelligence Technology Certified by OK Kosher-Vita-Antioxidant

Vita Antioxidant™

Top-rated vitamin and antioxidant supplement with the InCelligence Complex

$43.95

112 Tablets/Bottle

You can get 10% off if you register as an USANA preferred customer and another 10% off if you place a recurring order.

Vita Antioxidant™ offers a broad spectrum of vitamins and antioxidants using USANA InCelligence Technology®—a cutting-edge formula capable of unlocking cellular-communication codes that activate your cells’ natural ability to protect and renew themselves.*

Health Benefits

  • Nourishes cells with a broad range of essential vitamins and antioxidants*
  • Protects against oxidative stress by proactively stimulating the production of endogenous antioxidants such as glutathione and superoxide dismutase (SOD)*
  • Renews healthy cellular functions by promoting a natural mitochondrial, free-radical-neutralizing process known as mitophagy*
  • Excellent source of vitamins B6 and B12, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folate—all of which are essential to many aspects of our health*
  • Contains a unique Poly C® vitamin C blend, which provides higher levels of vitamin C in plasma than ascorbic acid alone*
  • Contains advanced levels of vitamin D to support whole-body health*

The Science and Benefits of Vita-Antioxidant

You can get 10% off if you register as an USANA preferred customer and another 10% off if you place a recurring order.

Healthy, well-nourished cells help you live your best life. Vita-Antioxidant— part of the USANA® CellSentials cellular nutrition system—supports the health and normal longevity of your cells. It supplies carefully balanced levels of high-quality vitamins that provide an essential foundation of optimal nourishment and powerful antioxidant protection.*

Vita-Antioxidant goes deeper with the patent-pending USANA InCelligence Technology®. The proprietary cell-signaling technology in the USANA InCelligence Complex uses key nutrients that speak your cell’s language to help activate protective and renewal process in your body. These processes act like strength training for your cells and help your body meet your unique health needs.*

Because vitamins and other micronutrients require mineral cofactors to function properly, Vita-Antioxidant should be taken with Core Minerals™ for best results.*

Summary

  • Vita-Antioxidant is part of the USANA CellSentials cellular nutrition system with patent-pending USANA InCelligence Technology.*
  • Supplies carefully balanced levels of high-quality vitamins and antioxidants, plus the propriety InCelligence Complex with cell-signaling technology. Should be taken with Core Minerals for best results.*
  • Nutrients in the InCelligence Complex proactively stimulate your cell’s production of powerful antioxidants. These nutrients also provide their own antioxidant activity.*
  • The InCelligence Complex helps activate mitophagy—a natural cellular clean-up process—to renew healthy cellular function.*
  • The InCelligence Complex contains quercetin, hesperidin, rutin, Meriva® †Bioavailable Curcumin, alpha lipoic acid, resveratrol, EGCG from green tea, and USANA’s patented Olivol® olive fruit extract.
  • Vita-Antioxidant also contains coenzyme Q10, beta carotene, and vitamins C, D, and E to provide significantly higher levels of antioxidant protection.*

The Benefits of Vita-Antioxidant

Vita-Antioxidant helps fill nutritional gaps to provide whole-body nutritional support by combining optimal amounts of dozens of vitamins, phytonutrients, and enzyme cofactors into one product. The formula contains micronutrients that support multiple metabolic functions throughout the body.* Some scientific evidence suggests that consumption of antioxidant vitamins may reduce the risk of certain forms of cancer. However, the FDA has determined that this evidence is limited and not conclusive.

With the addition of the InCelligence Complex, Vita-Antioxidant goes beyond delivering optimal nourishment. It initiates your cells’ natural protective and renewal processes. This enhances the formula’s effectiveness for supporting vibrant health.*

The Science of Vita-Antioxidant

Nourishment for Whole-Body Support

Vita-Antioxidant™ is a comprehensive blend with broad-spectrum support that more closely reflects the vitamins people should get from a healthy diet. A full spectrum of nourishing micronutrients also provides a foundation for the InCelligence Complex.

These foundational vitamins—A, B, C, D, and E—are also essential to whole-body well-being. Benefits include: maintaining healthy blood flow, keeping arteries and blood vessels healthy, and supporting immune and cellular function.*

High-potency vitamin A comes from a blend of retinyl acetate (for those who don’t convert beta-carotene to vitamin A efficiently), mixed carotenoids, and beta-carotene, which converts to vitamin A in the body only as needed. Beta-carotene supports cellular integrity, a strong heart, healthy immune function, and lung health. Beta-carotene, mixed carotenoids, lutein, and zeaxanthin also help preserve skin and eye health by providing oxidative defense against damaging UV rays.*

Vita-Antioxidant is an excellent source of vitamins B6 and B12, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folate. The B vitamins, which also include inositol, are essential to many aspects of our health, including:

  • Metabolizing fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, which plays a role in maintaining energy levels.*
  • Supporting normal formation of red blood cells, tissue, and DNA.*
  • Supporting healthy immune cell production.*
  • Healthy brain and nerve function; folate is especially important for women of child bearing age to help support healthy fetal neurocognitive development.*
  • Normal growth of healthy skin, hair, and nails.*
  • As part of a well-balanced diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol, folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 may reduce the risk of vascular disease. The FDA evaluated the above claim and found that while it is known that diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol reduce the risk of heart disease and other vascular diseases, the evidence in support of the above claim is inconclusive.
  • Maintaining healthy homocysteine levels, provided they are healthy to begin with, which is associated with heart health.*

Choline is usually grouped with the B vitamins even though it is not technically a vitamin. Regardless of classification, this essential nutrient supports cell structure and the transmission of nerve impulses from the brain throughout the central nervous system. It also supports liver function and helps maintain healthy homocysteine levels.*

Vita-Antioxidant™ is rich in vitamin C. USANA uses a unique Poly C® vitamin C blend, which provides higher levels of vitamin C in plasma than ascorbic acid alone.

Vitamin C is essential for synthesizing collagen—proteins that provide elasticity to our connective tissues. That why vitamin C is helpful in maintaining healthy veins and arteries, muscles, cartilage, tendons, bones, teeth, and skin. It also supports the metabolizing of fats and proteins, and the healthy production of immune cells.*

The high-potency vitamin D in Vita Antioxidant supports the whole body. Vitamin D supports calcium absorption, helping to support healthy bone density. It also supports healthy cell growth as well as muscle, cardiovascular, and immune function.*

Vita-Antioxidant is a good source of vitamin E, and also contains 20 mg of mixed tocopherols in each tablet. The mixed tocopherols, though not technically vitamin E, offer similar functions. Antioxidants, like vitamin E, help defend your cells against the oxidative stress caused by sunlight, pollution, and stress, which can all prematurely age the skin.*

Lycopene, lutein, and beta carotene play a role in supporting the skin.* Inositol, biotin, and pantothenic acid are fundamental to the growth of healthy skin, hair, and nails.*

InCelligence Complex

The InCelligence Complex is a unique blend of ingredients that support optimal cellular resilience and health during the normal lifespan of the cell. These nutrients can help activate a network of cell-signaling pathways to support your body’s ability to meet your individual health needs.*

The messages transmitted by nutrients in the InCelligence Complex act like strength training for your cells. The proactive activation of these networks helps build cellular resilience. This makes cells more able to adapt to whatever life throws at them.*

The InCelligence Complex supports a broad range of pathways and processes for whole-body health. But many of these processes focus on protection and renewal. Two of the most important are the production of endogenous antioxidants—those created in cells—and the activation of a cellular renewal process called mitophagy.*

You can get 10% off if you register as an USANA preferred customer and another 10% off if you place a recurring order.

Endogenous Antioxidant Protection

Our bodies have a naturally powerful defense system against damaging oxidative stress: antioxidants produced in our cells, such as glutathione and superoxide dismutase (SOD).

The InCelligence Complex contains nutrients that stimulate the production of endogenous antioxidants. The antioxidants created inside cells are hundreds of times more powerful than dietary antioxidants—those produced outside the body.*

Dietary antioxidant molecules neutralize free radicals in a one-to-one or one-to-two ratio—one dietary antioxidant eliminates one or two free-radical molecule(s). Endogenous antioxidants are typically enzymes able to neutralize 100 or more free-radical molecules during their lifespans.

Mitochondrial Renewal Through Mitophagy

Cellular energy production (ATP) may also generate free radicals. Natural antioxidants in the cell will neutralize many of the free radicals, but some mitochondria will still be damaged over time. Damaged mitochondria can work inefficiently, producing less ATP and more damaging free radicals.

The cell maintains efficiency through a natural response called mitophagy. Initiating this process degrades, removes, or recycles damaged mitochondria. However, age or other lifestyle factors may slow this process. The InCelligence Complex helps activate mitophagy to maintain healthy cellular renewal.

The USANA Difference

Vita-Antioxidant™ was formulated by USANA’s team of nutritional-science experts. They used readily bioavailable forms of each nutrient so you get a product with excellent completeness, potency, quality, and safety. This unique formulation provides high quality vitamins and antioxidants to nourish your cells. But it doesn’t stop there.

The InCelligence Complex also helps to activate the natural intelligence of your cells. Vita-Antioxidant uses this intelligence to proactively promote cellular longevity and resilience so your body is better able to meet your health needs.*

Together as the USANA® CellSentials—you can trust that Vita-Antioxidant and Core Minerals™ are the comprehensive supplement to nourish, protect, and renew your cells so you can live your best life.*

You can get 10% off if you register as an USANA preferred customer and another 10% off if you place a recurring order.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A plays a role in yourPhotograph of carrots

  • Vision
  • Bone growth
  • Reproduction
  • Cell functions
  • Immune system

Vitamin A is an antioxidant. It can come from plant or animal sources. Plant sources include colorful fruits and vegetables. Animal sources include liver and whole milk. Vitamin A is also added to foods like cereals.

Vegetarians, young children, and alcoholics may need extra Vitamin A. You might also need more if you have certain conditions, such as liver diseases, cystic fibrosis, and Crohn’s disease. Check with your health care provider to see if you need to take vitamin A supplements.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12, vitamin B12 or vitamin B-12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that has a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and the formation of red blood cells. It is one of eight B vitamins. It is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body, especially affecting DNAsynthesis, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.

Neither fungi, plants, nor animals (including humans) are capable of producing vitamin B12. Only bacteria and archaeahave the enzymes needed for its synthesis. Some plant foods are a natural source of B12 because of bacterial symbiosis. B12 is the largest and most structurally complicated vitamin and can be produced industrially only through a bacterial fermentation-synthesis. This synthetic B12 is used to fortify foods and sold as a dietary supplement.

Vitamin B12 consists of a class of chemically related compounds (vitamers), all of which show pharmacological activity. It contains the biochemically rare element cobalt(chemical symbol Co) positioned in the center of a planar tetra-pyrrole ring called a corrin ring. The vitamer is produced by bacteria as hydroxocobalamin, but conversion between different forms of the vitamin occurs in the body after consumption.

vb12

A common synthetic form of the vitamin is cyanocobalamin, produced by chemically modifying bacterial hydroxocobalamin. Because of superior stability and low cost this form is used in many pharmaceuticals and supplements as well as for fortification of foods. In the body it is converted into the human physiological forms methylcobalaminand 5′-deoxyadenosylcobalamin. In this process a cyanide ion, (CN), is produced, but the amount is very, very small (20 μg from 1,000 μg of cyanocobalamin) compared to what would cause a toxicity risk, and is in fact less than the amount of cyanide consumed daily from food (primarily fruit, nuts, seeds, legumes). Cyanide-free synthetic forms of the vitamin—hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and adenosylcobalamin—are being used in some pharmacological products and supplements, but their claimed superiority to cyanocobalamin is debatable.

Supplements of this B vitamin have been shown to be effective in pain management for a variety of conditions, including low-back pain and recurrent aphthous stomatitis, or mouth sores. Most people get enough B12 from their diet through animal products, such as eggs, milk, fish, and meat, and some fortified cereals . Vegans and some vegetarians should take B12 supplements to replace what they are not getting through their diet, but taking supplements beyond the recommended daily allowance of 2.4 micrograms for most adults is not suggested because a safe upper limit has not been established.

Vitamin B12 was discovered from its relationship to the disease pernicious anemia, an autoimmune disease in which parietal cells of the stomach responsible for secretingintrinsic factor are destroyed; these cells are also responsible for secreting acid in the stomach. Because intrinsic factor is crucial for the normal absorption of B12, its lack in the presence of pernicious anemia causes a vitamin B12 deficiency. Many other subtler kinds of vitamin B12 deficiency and their biochemical effects have since been elucidated.

How much vitamin B12 do I need?

The amount of vitamin B12 you need each day depends on your age. Average daily recommended amounts for different ages are listed below in micrograms (mcg):

Life Stage Recommended Amount
Birth to 6 months 0.4 mcg
Infants 7–12 months 0.5 mcg
Children 1–3 years 0.9 mcg
Children 4–8 years 1.2 mcg
Children 9–13 years 1.8 mcg
Teens 14–18 years 2.4 mcg
Adults 2.4 mcg
Pregnant teens and women 2.6 mcg
Breastfeeding teens and women 2.8 mcg

 

What foods provide vitamin B12?

Vitamin B12 is found naturally in a wide variety of animal foods and is added to some fortified foods. Plant foods have no vitamin B12 unless they are fortified. You can get recommended amounts of vitamin B12 by eating a variety of foods including the following:

  • Beef liver and clams, which are the best sources of vitamin B12.
  • Fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, and other dairy products, which also contain vitamin B12.
  • Some breakfast cereals, nutritional yeasts and other food products that are fortified with vitamin B12. To find out if vitamin B12 has been added to a food product, check the product labels.

Am I getting enough vitamin B12?

Most people in the United States get enough vitamin B12 from the foods they eat. But some people have trouble absorbing vitamin B12 from food. As a result, vitamin B12 deficiency affects between 1.5% and 15% of the public. Your doctor can test your vitamin B12 level to see if you have a deficiency.

Certain groups may not get enough vitamin B12 or have trouble absorbing it:

  • Many older adults, who do not have enough hydrochloric acid in their stomach to absorb the vitamin B12 naturally present in food. People over 50 should get most of their vitamin B12 from fortified foods or dietary supplements because, in most cases, their bodies can absorb vitamin B12 from these sources.
  • People with pernicious anemia whose bodies do not make the intrinsic factor needed to absorb vitamin B12. Doctors usually treat pernicious anemia with vitamin B12 shots, although very highoral doses of vitamin B12 might also be effective.
  • People who have had gastrointestinal surgery, such as weight loss surgery, or who have digestive disorders, such as celiac disease or Crohn’s disease. These conditions can decrease the amount of vitamin B12 that the body can absorb.
  • Some people who eat little or no animal foods such as vegetarians and vegans. Only animal foods have vitamin B12 naturally. When pregnant women and women who breastfeed their babies are strict vegetarians or vegans, their babies might also not get enough vitamin B12.

 

What happens if I don’t get enough vitamin B12?

Vitamin B12 deficiency causes tiredness, weakness, constipation, loss of appetite, weight loss, and megaloblastic anemia.  Nerve problems, such as numbness and tingling in the hands and feet, can also occur. Other symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include problems with balance, depression, confusion, dementia, poor memory, and soreness of the mouth or tongue. Vitamin B12 deficiency can damage the nervous system even in people who don’t have anemia, so it is important to treat a deficiency as soon as possible.

In infants, signs of a vitamin B12 deficiency include failure to thrive, problems with movement, delays in reaching the typical developmental milestones, and megaloblastic anemia.

Large amounts of folic acid can hide a vitamin B12 deficiency by correcting megaloblastic anemia, a hallmark of vitamin B12 deficiency. But folic acid does not correct the progressive damage to the nervous system that vitamin B12 deficiency also causes. For this reason, healthy adults should not get more than 1,000 mcg of folic acid a day.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It is important for your skin, bones, and connective tissue. It promotes healing and helps the body absorb iron.Photograph of an orange

Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. Good sources include citrus, red and green peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, and greens. Some juices and cereals have added vitamin C.

Some people may need extra vitamin C:

  • Pregnant/breastfeeding women
  • Smokers
  • People recovering from surgery
  • Burn victims

Also known as ascorbic acid, vitamin C has also been linked with pain relief — though the full story on vitamin C’s pain-reducing effects is still being written. A Dutch study of more than 400 people found that daily doses of vitamin C helped reduce pain in people with wrist fractures.

However, another recent study done in England found that treatment with antioxidants, including vitamin C, did not provide pain relief for people with chronic pancreatitis from alcohol abuse.

Chronic pain cure or not, eating plenty of vitamin C-rich foods is a good idea for general health . Great sources include red sweet peppers, strawberries, citrus fruits, and broccoli. The recommended daily allowance of vitamin C is 90 milligrams for men and 75 mg for women, but adults can take up to 2,000 mg daily without adverse effects.

How much vitamin C do I need?

The amount of vitamin C you need each day depends on your age. Average daily recommended amounts for different ages are listed below in milligrams (mg).

Life Stage Recommended Amount
Birth to 6 months 40 mg
Infants 7–12 months 50 mg
Children 1–3 years 15 mg
Children 4–8 years 25 mg
Children 9–13 years 45 mg
Teens 14–18 years (boys) 75 mg
Teens 14–18 years (girls) 65 mg
Adults (men) 90 mg
Adults (women) 75 mg
Pregnant teens 80 mg
Pregnant women 85 mg
Breastfeeding teens 115 mg
Breastfeeding women 120 mg

If you smoke, add 35 mg to the above values to calculate your total daily recommended amount.

 

Vitamin D

Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is one of the main building blocks of bone. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone diseases such as osteoporosis or rickets. Vitamin D also has a role in your nerve, muscle, and immune systems.Photograph of foods containing Vitamin D

You can get vitamin D in three ways: through your skin, from your diet, and from supplements. Your body forms vitamin D naturally after exposure to sunlight. However, too much sun exposure can lead to skin aging and skin cancer. So many people try to get their vitamin D from other sources.

Vitamin D-rich foods include egg yolks, saltwater fish, and liver. Some other foods, like milk and cereal, often have added vitamin D.

You can also take vitamin D supplements. Check with your health care provider to see how much you should take. People who might need extra vitamin D include

  • Seniors
  • Breastfed infants
  • People with dark skin
  • People with certain conditions, such as liver diseases, cystic fibrosis and Crohn’s disease
  • People who are obese or have had gastric bypass surgery

If you’ve dealt with severe menstrual cramps, you might want to double-check that you’re getting enough of the sunshine vitamin. Women who received a single high dose of vitamin D before the start of their menstrual period had 41 percent less pelvic pain than women who did not take the vitamin, plus they didn’t need their usual pain-relief medication, a small study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine found.

Earlier studies have shown that a shortage of D is associated with menstrual pain and that getting regular amounts of vitamin D — even less than the average recommended daily amount of 1,200 IU — reduces the chances of period pain . For vitamin D without supplements, add plenty of vitamin D-fortified milk, juice, salmon, and tuna to your diet.

Assuming that a person gets virtually no vitamin D from sunshine — and that this person gets adequate amounts of calcium — the IOM committee recommends getting the following amounts of vitamin D from diet or supplements (Note that the IOM’s upper limit is not a recommended intake, but what the IOM considers the highest safe level):

  • Infants age 0 to 6 months: adequate intake, 400 IU/day; maximum safe upper level of intake, 1,000 IU/day
  • Infants age 6 to 12 months: adequate intake, 400 IU/day; maximum safe upper level of intake, 1,500 IU/day
  • Age 1-3 years: adequate intake, 600 IU/day; maximum safe upper level of intake, 2,500 IU/day
  • Age 4-8 years: adequate intake, 600 IU/day; maximum safe upper level of intake, 3,000 IU/day
  • Age 9-70: adequate intake, 600 IU/day; maximum safe upper level of intake, 4,000 IU/day
  • Age 71+ years: adequate intake, 800 IU/day; maximum safe upper level of intake, 4,000 IU/day

That’s not enough, says Boston University vitamin D expert Michael Holick, MD, PhD, professor of medicine, physiology, and biophysics, Boston University Medical Center. Holick recommends a dose of 1,000 IU a day of vitamin D for both infants and adults — unless they’re getting plenty of safe sun exposure.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is an antioxidant. It plays a role in your immune system and metabolic processes.Photograph of bok choy

Good sources of vitamin E include

  • Vegetable oils
  • Margarine
  • Nuts and seeds
  • Leafy greens

Vitamin E is also added to foods like cereals. Most people get enough vitamin E from the foods they eat. People with certain disorders, such as liver diseases, cystic fibrosis, and Crohn’s disease may need extra vitamin E.

Vitamin E supplements may be harmful for people who take blood thinners and other medicines. Check with your health care provider before taking the supplements.

Several studies suggest that vitamin E may be helpful in pain management for several conditions, including breast pain and neuropathic pain . Vitamin E might be able to reduce exercise-related damage to muscles, an Australian study found.

But another study found that vitamin E supplements might pose risks, including an increased risk for prostate cancer in men . Adult men and women should aim for about 15 mg or 22.4 IU of vitamin E daily; a typical multivitamin supplement provides that amount.

To boost vitamin E intake through food, use safflower or sunflower oil in recipes and munch on sunflower seeds and nuts including almonds, hazelnuts, and peanuts for nutrient-rich snacking. People on blood thinning medications should be careful not to take large amounts of vitamin E because it has been associated with increased bleeding risk. The highest safe supplement dose for adults is 1,500 IU or 1,000 mg a day.

How much vitamin E should you take?

The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) includes the vitamin E you get from both the food you eat and any supplements you take.

Category

Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol): Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)

in milligrams (mg) and International Units (IU)

CHILDREN

1-3 years

6 mg/day (9 IU)

4-8 years

7 mg/day (10.4 IU)

9-13 years

11 mg/day (16.4 IU)

FEMALES

14 years and up

15 mg/day (22.4 IU)

Pregnant

15 mg/day (22.4 IU)

Breastfeeding

19 mg/day (28.5 IU)

MALES

14 years and up

15 mg/day (22.4 IU)

The tolerable upper intake levels of a supplement are the highest amount that most people can take safely. Higher doses might be used to treat vitamin E deficiencies. But you should never take more unless a doctor says so.

Category

(Children & Adults)

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL) of

Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)

in milligrams (mg) and International Units (IU)

1-3 years

200 mg/day (300 IU)

4-8 years

300 mg/day (450 IU)

9-13 years

600 mg/day (900 IU)

14-18 years

800 mg/day (1,200 IU)

19 years and up

1,000 mg/day (1,500 IU)

Because vitamin E is fat-soluble, supplements are best absorbed with food.

Vitamin K

Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for healthy bones and tissues. It also makes proteins for blood clotting. If you don’t have enough vitamin K, you may bleed too much.

Vitamin K is known as the clotting vitamin, because without it blood would not clot. Some studies suggest that it helps maintain strong bones in the elderly.

Photograph of broccoli in a steamer

Newborns have very little vitamin K. They usually get a shot of vitamin K soon after they are born.

If you take blood thinners, you need to be careful about how much vitamin K you get. You also need to be careful about taking vitamin E supplements. Vitamin E can interfere with how vitamin K works in your body. Ask your health care provider for recommendations about these vitamins.

There are different types of vitamin K. Most people get vitamin K from plants such as green vegetables, and dark berries. Bacteria in your intestines also produce small amounts of another type of vitamin K.

Food Sources

Vitamin K source

The best way to get the daily requirement of vitamin K is by eating food sources. Vitamin K is found in the following foods:

  • Green leafy vegetables, such as kale, spinach, turnip greens, collards, Swiss chard, mustard greens, parsley, romaine, and green leaf lettuce
  • Vegetables such as Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage
  • Fish, liver, meat, eggs, and cereals (contain smaller amounts)

Vitamin K is also made by the bacteria in the lower intestinal tract.

Vitamin K deficiency is very rare. It occurs when the body can’t properly absorb the vitamin from the intestinal tract. Vitamin K deficiency can also occur after long-term treatment with antibiotics.

People with vitamin K deficiency are often more likely to have bruising and bleeding.

If you take blood thinning drugs (such as anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs), you may need to limit vitamin K foods. You may also need to eat a consistent amount of vitamin K containing foods on a day to day basis if you consume these foods. You should know that vitamin K or foods containing vitamin K can affect how these drugs work.

It is important for you to keep vitamin K levels in your blood about the same from day to day. Ask your health care provider how much vitamin K-containing foods you should eat.

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamins reflects how much of each vitamin most people should get each day.

  • The RDA for vitamins may be used as goals for each person.
  • How much of each vitamin you need depends on your age and gender.
  • Other factors, such as pregnancy, breast-feeding, and illness may increase the amount you need.

The Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine Recommended Intakes for Individuals – Adequate Intakes (AIs) for vitamin K:

Infants

  • 0 to 6 months: 2.0 micrograms per day (mcg/day)
  • 7 to 12 months: 2.5 mcg/day

Children

  • 1 to 3 years: 30 mcg/day
  • 4 to 8 years: 55 mcg/day
  • 9 to 13 years: 60 mcg/day

Adolescents and Adults

  • Males and females age 14 to 18: 75 mcg/day
  • Males and females age 19 and older: 90 mcg/day for females (including those who are pregnant and lactating) and 120 mcg/day for males

Vitamins

Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. There are 13 vitamins your body needs. They are

  • Vitamin A
  • B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 andfolate)
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin K

Photograph of oranges and vitamin C supplementsYou can usually get all your vitamins from the foods you eat. Your body can also make vitamins D and K. People who eat a vegetarian diet may need to take a vitamin B12 supplement.

Each vitamin has specific jobs. If you have low levels of certain vitamins, you may get health problems. For example, if you don’t get enough vitamin C, you could become anemic. Some vitamins may help prevent medical problems. Vitamin A prevents night blindness.

The best way to get enough vitamins is to eat a balanced diet with a variety of foods. In some cases, you may need to take vitamin supplements. It’s a good idea to ask your health care provider first. High doses of some vitamins can cause problems.