Magnesium Sulfate

Magnesium Sulfate Relaxes Spasms

Perhaps there’s nothing more painful than sudden painful muscle spasms. Well there’s nothing more fast-acting at stopping muscle spasms and twitching than this vital mineral compound. It’s also been shown to reduce aching joint pain by 80%.

Magnesium sulfate is used for:

Treating low magnesium levels and maintaining the proper amount of magnesium in the body when used as part of intravenous (IV) feedings (eg, total parenteral nutrition [TPN]). It is also used in pregnant women to control seizures due to certain complications of pregnancy (eg, severe toxemia) and to control high blood pressure, severe brain function problems (encephalopathy), and seizures in children who have sudden, severe inflammation of the kidneys (acute nephritis).

magnesium-sulfate-relaxes-spasms

Magnesium sulfate is a mineral. It works by replacing magnesium in patients who have low magnesium levels in the body due to illness or treatment with certain medicines. Magnesium sulfate may also be used to treat seizures by decreasing certain nerve impulses to muscles.

Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt (chemical compound) containing magnesium, sulfur and oxygen, with the formula MgSO4. It is often encountered as the heptahydrate sulfate mineral epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O), commonly called Epsom salt, taking its name from a bitter saline spring in Epsom in Surrey, England, where the salt was produced from the springs that arise where the porous chalk of the North Downs meets non-porous London clay. The monohydrate, MgSO4·H2O is found as the mineral kieserite. The overall global annual usage in the mid-1970s of the monohydrate was 2.3 million tons, of which the majority was used in agriculture.

Anhydrous magnesium sulfate is used as a drying agent. The anhydrous form is hygroscopic (readily absorbs water from the air) and is therefore difficult to weigh accurately; the hydrate is often preferred when preparing solutions (for example, in medical preparations). Epsom salt has been traditionally used as a component of bath salts. Epsom salt can also be used as a beauty product. Athletes use it to soothe sore muscles, while gardeners use it to improve crops. It has a variety of other uses: for example, Epsom salt is also effective in the removal of splinters.

It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.

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Marijuana

Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mix of dried, crumbled parts from the marijuana plant. It can be rolled up and smoked like a cigarette or cigar or smoked in a pipe. Sometimes people mix it in food or inhale it using a vaporizer.

Marijuana can cause problems with memory, learning, and behavior. Smoking it can cause some of the same coughing and breathing problems as smoking cigarettes. Some people get addicted to marijuana after using it for a while. It is more likely to happen if they use marijuana every day, or started using it when they were teenagers.

Some states have approved “medical marijuana” to ease symptoms of various health problems. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved marijuana as a medicine. THC, the active ingredient in marijuana, is approved to relieve nausea caused by cancer chemotherapy and to boost appetite in severe weight loss caused by HIV/AIDS. Scientists are doing more research on marijuana and its ingredients.

Medication Errors

Medicines cure infectious diseases, prevent problems from chronic diseases, and ease pain. But medicines can also cause harmful reactions if not used correctly. Errors can happen in the hospital, at the doctor’s office, at the pharmacy, or at home. You can help prevent errors byPhotograph of pills

  • Knowing your medicines. Keep a list of the names of your medicines, how much you take, and when you take them. Include over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and supplements and herbs. Take this list to all your doctor visits.
  • Reading medicine labels and following the directions. Don’t take medications prescribed for someone else.
  • Taking extra caution when giving medicines to children.
  • Asking questions. If you don’t know the answers to these questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
    • Why am I taking this medicine?
    • What are the common problems to watch out for?
    • What should I do if they occur?
    • When should I stop this medicine?
    • Can I take this medicine with the other medicines on my list?

Medicines

You may need to take medicines every day, or only once in a while. Either way, you want to make sure that the medicines are safe and will help you getPhotograph of various pills better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety and effectiveness of both prescription and over-the-counter medicines.

Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with food or other medicines you may be taking. They may not be safe during pregnancy. To reduce the risk of reactions and make sure that you get better, it is important for you to take your medicines correctly and be careful when giving medicines to children.

Menthol

Menthol is an organic compound made synthetically or obtained from corn mint, peppermint, or other mint oils. It is a waxy, crystalline substance, clear or white in color, which is solid at room temperature and melts slightly above. The main form of menthol occurring in nature is (−)-menthol, which is assigned the (1R,2S,5R) configuration. Menthol has local anesthetic and counterirritant qualities, and it is widely used to relieve minor throat irritation. Menthol also acts as a weak kappa opioid receptor agonist.

meMenthol is an ancient herbal medicine used by the Greeks, Romans and Egyptians to rapidly cool painful flare-ups in your muscles and tendons. It’s why when you use a menthol-containing cream you instantly feel cool relief to aching muscles.

What’s more, menthol actually tricks the body with its cooling touch. Menthol sends a cooling pleasing sensation to your brain that thwarts the stinging heat of inflammation. Menthol then acts fast to increase the blood flow by widening the blood vessels to reduce inflammation and pain.

Relieving minor pain caused by conditions such as arthritis, bursitis, tendonitis, muscle strains or sprains, backache, bruising, and cramping. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.

Menthol cream is a topical analgesic. It works by temporarily relieving minor Pains.

Do NOT use menthol cream if:

  • you are allergic to any ingredient in menthol cream

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

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All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects. No COMMON side effects have been reported with menthol cream. Seek medical attention right away if any of these SEVERE side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); redness or irritation at the application site.

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Migraine

Migraines are recurring attacks of moderate to severe pain. The pain is throbbing or pulsing, and is often on one side of the head. During migraines, people are very sensitive to light and sound. They may also become nauseated and vomit.

Migraine is three times more common in women than in men. Some people can tell when they are about to have a migraine because they see flashing lights or zigzag lines or they temporarily lose their vision.

Many things can trigger a migraine. These include

  • Anxiety
  • Stress
  • Lack of food or sleep
  • Exposure to light
  • Hormonal changes (in women)

Migraine is a neurological disease characterized by recurrent moderate to severe headaches often in association with a number of autonomic nervous systemsymptoms

Migraine is a neurological disease characterized by recurrent moderate to severe headaches often in association with a number of autonomic nervous systemsymptoms. The word is derived from the Greek ἡμικρανία (hemikrania), “pain on one side of the head”, from ἡμι- (hemi-), “half”, and κρανίον (kranion), “skull”.

Typically, the headache affects one half of the head, is pulsating in nature, and lasts from 2 to 72 hours. Associated symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, andsensitivity to light, sound, or smell. The pain is generally made worse by physical activity. Up to one-third of people with migraine headaches perceive an aura: a transient visual, sensory, language, or motor disturbance which signals that the headache will soon occur. Occasionally, an aura can occur with little or no headache following it.

Migraines are believed to be due to a mixture of environmental and genetic factors. About two-thirds of cases run in families. Changing hormone levels may also play a role, as migraines affect slightly more boys than girls before puberty, but about two to three times more women than men.  The risk of migraines usually decreases during pregnancy. The exact mechanisms of migraine are not known. It is, however, believed to be a neurovascular disorder.  The primary theory is related to increased excitability of the cerebral cortex and abnormal control of pain neurons in the trigeminal nucleus of the brainstem.

Initial recommended management is with simple pain medication such as ibuprofen and paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen) for the headache, medication for the nausea, and the avoidance of triggers. Specific agents such as triptans or ergotamines may be used by those for whom simple analgesics are not effective. Globally, approximately 15% of the population is affected by migraines at some point in life.

Milnacipran

Milnacipran

pronounced as (mil na’ si pran)

Milnacipran is similar to certain antidepressant medicines. Antidepressants may increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or actions in children, teenagers, and young adults. However, depression and certain other mental problems may also increase the risk of suicide. Talk with the patient’s doctor to be sure that the benefits of using milnacipran outweigh the risks.

Families and caregivers must closely watch patients who take milnacipran. It is important to keep in close contact with the patient’s doctor. Tell the doctor right away if the patient has symptoms like worsened depression, suicidal thoughts, or changes in behavior. Discuss any questions with the patient’s doctor.

Milnacipran is not approved for use in children or to treat depression.

  • Generic name = Milnacipran

    pdr.net

  • Trade name = Savella
  • Class = “antidepressant” (selective serotonin and norepinephrinereuptake inhibitors)
  • Advantages
    • Shown effective for fibromyalgia
  • Dosing
    • Fibromyalgia
      • Day 1: 12.5 mg x 1
      • Day 2-3: 12.5 mg BID
      • Day 4-7: 25 mg BID
      • Thereafter: 50 mg BID
      • Max dose:  100 mg BID
      • Adequate trial period:  4 weeks
  • Note: Decreased dose in patients with renal disease

IMPORTANT WARNING:

Milnacipran is not used to treat depression, but it belongs to the same class of medications as many antidepressants. Before you take milnacipran, you should be aware of the risks of taking antidepressants because taking milnacipran may carry similar risks. During clinical studies, this type of antidepressant (‘mood elevator’) caused a small number of children, teenagers, and young adults (up to 24 years of age) to become suicidal (thinking about harming or killing oneself or planning or trying to do so). Children, teenagers, and young adults who take antidepressants to treat depression or other mental illnesses may be more likely to become suicidal than children, teenagers, and young adults who do not take antidepressants to treat these conditions. However, experts are not sure about how great this risk is and how much it should be considered in deciding whether a child or teenager should be treated with an antidepressant or antidepressant-like medication. Children younger than 18 years of age should not normally take milnacipran, but in some cases, a doctor may decide that milnacipran is the best medication to treat a child’s condition.

You should know that your mental health may change in unexpected ways when you take milnacipran even if you are an adult over 24 years of age. You may become suicidal, especially at the beginning of your treatment and any time that your dose is increased or decreased. You, your family, or your caregiver should call your doctor right away if you experience any of the following symptoms: new or worsening depression; thinking about harming or killing yourself or planning or trying to do so; extreme worry; agitation; panic attacks; difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep; aggressive behavior; irritability; acting without thinking; severe restlessness; and frenzied, abnormal excitement. Be sure that your family or caregiver knows which symptoms may be serious so they can call the doctor if you are unable to seek treatment on your own.

Your healthcare provider will want to see you often while you are taking milnacipran, especially at the beginning of your treatment. Be sure to keep all appointments for office visits with your doctor.

The doctor or pharmacist will give you the manufacturer’s patient information sheet (Medication Guide) when you begin treatment with milnacipran. Read the information carefully and ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions. You also can obtain the Medication Guide from the FDA website: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/InformationbyDrugClass/UCM096273.

No matter what your age, before you take an antidepressant, you or your caregiver should talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of treating your condition with milnacipran or with other treatments. You should also talk about the risks and benefits of not treating your condition. Although taking milnacipran or similar medications may increase the risk that you will become suicidal, you should know that there are other things that also increase this risk. If you have depression or another mental illness, there is a greatly increased risk that you will become suicidal. This risk is higher if you or anyone in your family has or has ever had bipolar disorder (mood that changes from depressed to abnormally excited), mania (frenzied, abnormally excited mood), or has thought about or attempted suicide. Talk to your doctor about your condition, symptoms, and personal and family medical history. You and your doctor will decide what type of treatment is right for you.

Why is this medication prescribed?

Milnacipran is used to treat fibromyalgia (a long-lasting condition that may cause pain, muscle stiffness and tenderness, tiredness, and difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep). Milnacipran is in a class of medications called selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). It works by increasing the amount of serotonin and norepinephrine, natural substances that help stop the movement of pain signals in the brain.

Warnings/Precautions:

Increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults; monitor closely for clinical worsening or unusual changes in all patients. Monitor for serotonin syndrome; discontinue if occurs. Substantial alcohol abuse, chronic liver disease, end stage renal disease: not recommended. Hypertension. Heart disease. Arrhythmias. Monitor BP and HR prior to starting therapy and periodically thereafter; reduce dose or discontinue if elevation is sustained. Seizure disorder. Mania. Severe hepatic dysfunction. Discontinue if jaundice or liver dysfunction occurs. Moderate renal impairment. Volume depleted. Hyponatremia risk (esp. in elderly). History of dysuria. GU obstruction. Risk of bleeding. Controlled narrow-angle glaucoma. Reevaluate periodically. Write ℞ for smallest practical amount. Avoid abrupt cessation. Pregnancy (Cat.C; see full labeling for effects on fetus). Nursing mothers.

Milnacipran is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). Exactly how milnacipran works to treat fibromyalgia is not known. It may work by restoring the balance of certain natural substances in the brain (serotonin and norepinephrine).

Do NOT use milnacipran if:

  • you are allergic to any ingredient in milnacipran
  • you have end-stage kidney disease
  • you are taking linezolid or have taken a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) (eg, phenelzine) within the last 14 days

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

How should this medicine be used?

Milnacipran comes as a tablet to be taken by mouth. It is usually taken two times a day. Milnacipran may be taken with or without food, but taking it with food will decrease the chance that milnacipran will upset your stomach. Take milnacipran at around the same times every day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take milnacipran exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.

Your doctor will start you on a low dose of milnacipran and gradually increase your dose during the first week of treatment.

Milnacipran may help control the symptoms of fibromyalgia, but will not cure it. Do not stop taking milnacipran without talking to your doctor. If you suddenly stop taking milnacipran, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as mood changes, irritability, agitation, dizziness, numbness or tingling in the hands or feet, anxiety, confusion, headache, tiredness, difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, ringing in the ears, abnormal excitement, or seizures. Your doctor will probably decrease your dose gradually.

Other uses for this medicine

This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

What special precautions should I follow?

Before taking milnacipran,

  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to milnacipran, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in milnacipran tablets. Ask your pharmacist or check the Medication Guide for a list of the ingredients.
  • tell your doctor if you are taking a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), linezolid (Zyvox), methylene blue, phenelzine (Nardil), selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam, Zelapar), and tranylcypromine (Parnate), or if you have stopped taking an MAO inhibitor within the past 14 days. Your doctor will probably tell you not to take milnacipran. If you stop taking milnacipran, your doctor may tell you that you should wait at least 5 days before you start to take an MAO inhibitor.
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, or herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention any of the following: anticoagulants (‘blood thinners’) such as warfarin (Coumadin); aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn); buspirone; clonidine (Catapres); digoxin (Lanoxicaps, Digitek, Lanoxin); diuretics (‘water pills’); epinephrine (Epipen, Primatene Mist); fentanyl (Abstral, Actiq, Fentora, Onsolis, others); lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid); medications for anxiety, mental illness, pain, or seizures; medications for migraine headaches such as almotriptan (Axert), eletriptan (Relpax), frovatriptan (Frova), naratriptan (Amerge), rizatriptan (Maxalt), sumatriptan (Imitrex), and zolmitriptan (Zomig); sedatives; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem), fluvoxamine (Luvox), paroxetine (Paxil), and sertraline (Zoloft); sleeping pills; tramadol; tranquilizers; selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as duloxetine (Cymbalta), desvenlafaxine (Pristiq), and venlafaxine (Effexor); and tricyclics antidepressants such as amitriptyline (Elavil), amoxapine (Asendin), clomipramine (Anafranil), desipramine (Norpramin), doxepin (Adapin, Sinequan), imipramine (Tofranil), nortriptyline (Aventyl, Pamelor), protriptyline (Vivactil), and trimipramine (Surmontil). Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
  • tell your doctor what nutritional supplements and herbal products you are taking, especially St. John’s wort and tryptophan.
  • tell your doctor if you have glaucoma (increased pressure in the eye that may lead to vision loss). Your doctor will probably tell you not to take milnacipran.
  • tell your doctor if you drink or have ever drunk large amounts of alcohol and if you have or have ever had high blood pressure; seizures; an irregular heartbeat; an enlarged or inflamed prostate (a male reproductive gland); difficulty urinating; bleeding problems; or heart, kidney, or liver disease.
  • tell your doctor if you are pregnant, especially if you are in the last few months of your pregnancy, or if you plan to become pregnant or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking milnacipran, call your doctor. Milnacipran may cause problems in newborns following delivery if it is taken during the last months of pregnancy.
  • if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are taking milnacipran.
  • you should know that milnacipran may make you drowsy. Do not drive a car or operate machinery until you know how this medication affects you.
  • talk to your doctor about the safe use of alcoholic beverages while you are taking milnacipran.

What special dietary instructions should I follow?

Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, continue your normal diet.

What should I do if I forget a dose?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.

What side effects can this medication cause?

Milnacipran may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • constipation
  • stomach pain
  • weight loss
  • dry mouth
  • feeling of extreme facial warmth and/or redness
  • headache
  • blurred vision
  • decreased sexual desire or ability
  • pain or swelling of the testicles
  • difficulty urinating
  • rash
  • itching

Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of these symptoms or those listed in the IMPORTANT WARNING section, call your doctor immediately or get emergency medical treatment:

  • hallucinations (seeing things or hearing voices that do not exist)
  • confusion
  • difficulty concentrating
  • memory problems
  • sweating or fever
  • diarrhea
  • dizziness
  • uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body
  • severe muscle stiffness
  • weakness
  • unsteady walking that may cause falling
  • seizures
  • fainting
  • coma (loss of consciousness for a period of time)
  • slowed or stopped breathing
  • fast or pounding heartbeat
  • difficulty breathing
  • extreme tiredness
  • lack of energy
  • loss of appetite
  • pain in the upper right part of the stomach
  • yellowing of the skin or eyes
  • flu-like symptoms
  • black and tarry stools
  • red blood in stools
  • bloody vomit
  • vomit that looks like coffee grounds
  • unusual bleeding or bruising
  • nosebleeds
  • tiny red spots directly under the skin

Milnacipran may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while you are taking this medication.

If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

What should I know about storage and disposal of this medication?

Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. Talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.

In case of emergency/overdose

In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at 911.

Symptoms of overdose may include:

  • extreme sleepiness
  • confusion
  • dizziness
  • coma (loss of consciousness for a period of time)
  • slowed or stopped heartbeat and breathing

What other information should I know?

Keep all appointments with your doctor. Your doctor will check your blood pressure and pulse regularly during your treatment with milnacipran.

Do not let anyone else take your medication. Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about refilling your prescription.

It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.

Brand names

  • Savella®

Last Revised – 04/15/2014

Minerals

Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making hormones and regulating your heartbeat.Photograph of various vegetables

There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your body needs in larger amounts. They include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur. Your body needs just small amounts of trace minerals. These include iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride and selenium.

The best way to get the minerals your body needs is by eating a wide variety of foods. In some cases, your doctor may recommend a mineral supplement.

Muscle Cramps

Also called: Charley horse

Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, lasting a few seconds to several minutes. It is a very common muscle problem.

Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves that malfunction. Sometimes this malfunction is due to a health problem, such as a spinal cord injury or a pinched nerve in the neck or back. Other causes are

  • Straining or overusing a muscle
  • Dehydration
  • A lack of minerals in your diet or the depletion of minerals in your body
  • Not enough blood getting to your muscles

Cramps can be very painful. Stretching or gently massaging the muscle can relieve this pain.

Muscle Disorders

Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even paralysis.Illustration of the muscles

Causes of muscle disorders include

  • Injury or overuse, such as sprains or strains, cramps or tendinitis
  • A genetic disorder, such as muscular dystrophy
  • Some cancers
  • Inflammation, such as myositis
  • Diseases of nerves that affect muscles
  • Infections
  • Certain medicines

Sometimes the cause is not known.