The five sense organs in human beings are nose, eyes, skin, tongue and ears help to protect our body. The sense organs in humans have receptors that help pass information through sensory neurons to the right place with the help of our nervous system.
Each of the sense organs has different receptors.
- General receptors are present all through the body as they are present in visceral organs and skin. Visceral means joints and muscles.
- Special receptors contain chemoreceptor which is present in nose, mouth and photoreceptors or light receptors present in our eyes and mechanoreceptors found in our ears.
Olfactory cells are present on the top of nasal cavity. Also olfactory cells have attachments like hair called as cilia that reside in nasal cavity. While breathing anything that you inhale with air enters the nasal cavity like dust, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, chemicals, pollen etc., you cannot smell dust, pollen or air but can smell the chemicals. Your brain is capable of knowing the process of smelling.
The taste and smell senses work hand in hand. If you are unable to smell something, you cannot taste it too. Taste buds present on our tongue have chemoreceptor that work same as chemoreceptor present in our nasal cavity. The chemoreceptor present in our nose can detect any type of smell, whereas the four different taste buds present on our tongue detect different taste like salty, bitter, sour and sweet.
The ear not only helps us to hear but also play an important role in maintaining balance or equilibrium. To maintain balance ear should be able to detect movement. To hear, the ear should be able to respond to stimulation produced by sound waves.
When the sound wave reaches the eardrum, our eardrum then moves small stapes, the malleus and incus , which also moves.
When you observe an eye, the colored part is Iris. The iris controls pupil’s size and is pigmented, which dilates in order to pass more light into the eye or contract to pass less light in our eye. The cornea covers pupil and iris. The retina has photoreceptors that detect light. Detectors that detect light are of two types
Rods help us detect motion. The rods work very hard in low light
Cones help detect color and fine detail. They work hard and best when the light is bright. Color blindness usually occurs when the person lacks cone.
The skin has general receptors. These receptors help us detecting pain, pressure, touch and temperature. All these four receptors are evenly interspersed all throughout the skin. When activate skin receptors help in generating an impulse, which passes to your spinal cord and from there to your brain. All our organs are made of tissues and have receptors, it’s just not only the skin that has receptors.
All five sense organs are important for our body to function properly and we should take very good care of these sensory organs.