Abdominal Pain

Your abdomen extends from below your chest to your groin. Some people call it the stomach, but your abdomen contains many other important organs. Pain in the abdomen can come from any one of them. The pain may start somewhere else, such as your chest. Severe pain doesn’t always mean a serious problem. Nor does mild pain mean a problem is not serious.

Abdominal pain, or stomachache, affects many children. There are many possible causes of abdominal pain. It can be a sign of infection, constipation, or a serious medical condition. The pain may also be unrelated to a medical problem, and simply be your child’s way of expressing feelings of stress or anxiety (which does not mean that it doesn’t truly hurt!). Abdominal pain results in many doctor and ER visits, as well as many missed days of school.

Accutane

Accutane is a form of vitamin A. It reduces the amount of oil released by oil glands in your skin, and helps your skin renew itself more quickly.

Accutane is used to treat severe nodular acne. It is usually given after other acne medicines or antibiotics have been tried without successful treatment of symptoms.

Accutane may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Acetaminophen

Paracetamol, also known as acetaminophen or APAP, is a widely used over-the-counter pain medication and medication to reduce fever.[8][9] It is commonly used to help with headaches, other minor aches and pains, and is a major ingredient in many cold medications.

In combination with opioid analgesics, paracetamol is used in the management of more severe pain such as post-surgical and cancer pain. Though paracetamol is used to treat inflammatory pain, it is not classified as an NSAIDbecause it exhibits only weak anti-inflammatory activity.

Acupuncture

Acupuncture has been practiced in China and other Asian countries for thousands of years. Acupuncture involves stimulating specific points on the body. This is most often done by inserting thin needles through the skin, to cause a change in the physical functions of the body.

Research has shown that acupuncture reduces nausea and vomiting after surgery and chemotherapy. It can also relieve pain. Researchers don’t fully understand how acupuncture works. It might aid the activity of your body’s pain-killing chemicals. It also might affect how you release chemicals that regulate blood pressure and flow.

Acute Pain

Pain that comes on quickly and can be severe, but lasts a relatively short time. Is usually caused by an painful injury, surgical procedure, or dysfunction of a muscle or joints.

This pain alerts us to the problematic site and possible causes of inflammation, injury, and disease.

This type of pain is generally easier to treat than chronic pain, as doctors and medical providers can provide physical therapy, chiropractic, acupuncture, massages and exercise.

Advil

What is Advil?

Advil (ibuprofen) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Ibuprofen works by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.

Advil is used to reduce fever and treat pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as headache, toothache, back pain, arthritis, menstrual cramps, or minor injury.

Advil is used in adults and children who are at least 6 months old.

Important information
Advil can increase your risk of fatal heart attack or stroke, especially if you use it long term or take high doses, or if you have heart disease. Do not use this medicine just before or after heart bypass surgery (coronary artery bypass graft, or CABG).

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Advil may also cause stomach or intestinal bleeding, which can be fatal. These conditions can occur without warning while you are using ibuprofen, especially in older adults.

Do not take more than your recommended dose. An Advil overdose can damage your stomach or intestines. Use only the smallest amount of medication needed to get relief from your pain, swelling, or fever.

Before taking this medicine
Advil can increase your risk of fatal heart attack or stroke, especially if you use it long term or take high doses, or if you have heart disease. Even people without heart disease or risk factors could have a stroke or heart attack while taking this medicine.

Do not use this medicine just before or after heart bypass surgery (coronary artery bypass graft, or CABG).

Advil may also cause stomach or intestinal bleeding, which can be fatal. These conditions can occur without warning while you are using ibuprofen, especially in older adults.

You should not use Advil if you are allergic to ibuprofen, or if you have ever had an asthma attack or severe allergic reaction after taking aspirin or an NSAID.

Ask a doctor or pharmacist if it is safe for you to take this medicine if you have:

heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, or if you smoke;
a history of heart attack, stroke, or blood clot;
a history of stomach ulcers or bleeding;
asthma;
liver or kidney disease;
fluid retention; or
a connective tissue disease such as Marfan syndrome, Sjogren’s syndrome, or lupus.
Taking Advil during the last 3 months of pregnancy may harm the unborn baby.Do not use this medicine without a doctor’s advice if you are pregnant.

It is not known whether ibuprofen passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medicine without a doctor’s advice if you are breast-feeding a baby.

Do not give ibuprofen to a child younger than 6 months old without the advice of a doctor.

How should I take Advil?
Use Advil exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. Do not use in larger amounts or for longer than recommended. Use the lowest dose that is effective in treating your condition.

Do not take more than your recommended dose. An Advil overdose can damage your stomach or intestines. The maximum amount of ibuprofen for adults is 800 milligrams per dose or 3200 mg per day (4 maximum doses). Use only the smallest amount of ibuprofen needed to get relief from your pain, swelling, or fever.

A child’s dose of ibuprofen is based on the age and weight of the child. Carefully follow the dosing instructions provided with children’s Advil for the age and weight of your child. Ask a doctor or pharmacist if you have questions.

Take Advil with food or milk to lessen stomach upset.

Shake the oral suspension (liquid) well just before you measure a dose. Measure liquid medicine with the dosing syringe provided, or with a special dose-measuring spoon or medicine cup. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.

The Advil chewable tablet must be chewed before you swallow it.

If you use this medicine long-term, you may need frequent medical tests.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Do not allow the liquid medicine to freeze.

Read all patient information, medication guides, and instruction sheets provided to you. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions.

What happens if I miss a dose?
Since Advil is used when needed, you may not be on a dosing schedule. If you are on a schedule, use the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not use extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose?
Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222. Overdose symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, drowsiness, black or bloody stools, coughing up blood, shallow breathing, fainting, or coma.

What should I avoid while taking Advil?
Avoid drinking alcohol. It may increase your risk of stomach bleeding.

Avoid taking aspirin while you are taking Advil.

Avoid taking Advil if you are taking aspirin to prevent stroke or heart attack. Ibuprofen can make aspirin less effective in protecting your heart and blood vessels. If you must use both medications, take the Advil at least 8 hours before or 30 minutes after you take the aspirin (non-enteric coated form).

Ask a doctor or pharmacist before using any cold, allergy, or pain medicine. Many medicines available over the counter contain aspirin or other medicines similar to ibuprofen. Taking certain products together can cause you to get too much of this type of medication. Check the label to see if a medicine contains aspirin, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, or naproxen.

Advil side effects
Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction to Advil: sneezing, runny or stuffy nose; wheezing or trouble breathing; hives; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Get emergency medical help if you have signs of a heart attack or stroke: chest pain spreading to your jaw or shoulder, sudden numbness or weakness on one side of the body, slurred speech, feeling short of breath.

Stop using Advil and call your doctor at once if you have:

changes in your vision;
shortness of breath (even with mild exertion);
swelling or rapid weight gain;
the first sign of any skin rash, no matter how mild;
signs of stomach bleeding – bloody or tarry stools, coughing up blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds;
liver problems – nausea, upper stomach pain, itching, tired feeling, flu-like symptoms, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes);
kidney problems – little or no urinating, painful or difficult urination, swelling in your feet or ankles, feeling tired or short of breath;
low red blood cells (anemia) – pale skin, feeling light-headed or short of breath, rapid heart rate, trouble concentrating; or
severe skin reaction – fever, sore throat, swelling in your face or tongue, burning in your eyes, skin pain followed by a red or purple skin rash that spreads (especially in the face or upper body) and causes blistering and peeling.
Common Advil side effects may include:

upset stomach, mild heartburn, nausea, vomiting;
bloating, gas, diarrhea, constipation;
dizziness, headache, nervousness;
mild itching or rash; or
ringing in your ears.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

See also: Side effects (in more detail)

What other drugs will affect Advil?
Ask your doctor before using Advil if you take an antidepressant such as citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine (Prozac), fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline (Zoloft), trazodone, or vilazodone. Taking any of these medicines with an NSAID may cause you to bruise or bleed easily.

Ask a doctor or pharmacist if it is safe for you to use Advil if you are also using any of the following drugs:

lithium;
methotrexate;
a blood thinner (warfarin, Coumadin, Jantoven);
heart or blood pressure medication, including a diuretic or “water pill”; or
steroid medicine (such as prednisone).
This list is not complete. Other drugs may interact with ibuprofen, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible interactions are listed in this medication guide.

Alcohol

For most adults, moderate alcohol use is probably not harmful. However, about 18 million adult Americans have an alcohol use disorder. This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse.

Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes

  • Craving – a strong need to drink
  • Loss of control – not being able to stop drinking once you’ve started
  • Physical dependence – withdrawal symptoms
  • Tolerance – the need to drink more alcohol to feel the same effect

With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still have a serious problem. The drinking may cause problems at home, work, or school. It may cause you to put yourself in dangerous situations, or lead to legal or social problems.

Another common problem is binge drinking. It is drinking about five or more drinks in two hours for men. For women, it is about four or more drinks in two hours.

Too much alcohol is dangerous. Heavy drinking can increase the risk of certain cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide.

If you want to stop drinking, there is help. Start by talking to your health care provider. Treatment may include medicines, counseling, and support groups.

Aleve

What is Aleve?

Aleve (naproxen) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Naproxen works by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.

Aleve is used to temporarily relieve minor aches and pains due to arthritis, muscular aches, backache, menstrual cramps, headache, toothache,and the common cold. Aleve is also used to temporarily reduce fever.

Aleve may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Important information

alevealeve2
You should not use Aleve if you have a history of allergic reaction to aspirin or other NSAID (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug).

Aleve can increase your risk of fatal heart attack or stroke, especially if you use it long term or take high doses, or if you have heart disease. Do not use Aleve just before or after heart bypass surgery (coronary artery bypass graft, or CABG).
Get emergency medical help if you have chest pain, weakness, shortness of breath, slurred speech, or problems with vision or balance.

Aleve may also cause stomach or intestinal bleeding, which can be fatal. These conditions can occur without warning while you are using Aleve, especially in older adults.

Before taking this medicine

Aleve can increase your risk of fatal heart attack or stroke, especially if you use it long term or take high doses, or if you have heart disease. Even people without heart disease or risk factors could have a stroke or heart attack while taking this medicine.

Do not use this medicine just before or after heart bypass surgery (coronary artery bypass graft, or CABG).

Aleve may also cause stomach or intestinal bleeding, which can be fatal. These conditions can occur without warning while you are using naproxen, especially in older adults.

You should not use Aleve if you are allergic to naproxen, or if you have ever had an asthma attack or severe allergic reaction after taking aspirin or an NSAID.

Ask a doctor or pharmacist if it is safe for you to use this medicine if you have:

heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, or if you smoke;
a history of heart attack, stroke, or blood clot;
a history of stomach ulcers or bleeding;
asthma;
liver or kidney disease; or
fluid retention.
Taking Aleve during the last 3 months of pregnancy may harm the unborn baby. Do not use this medicine without a doctor’s advice if you are pregnant.

Naproxen can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. You should not breast-feed while using this medicine.

Do not give Aleve to a child without medical advice.

How should I take Aleve?

Use Aleve exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. Do not use in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. The smallest effective dose should be used.

Dosage for adults and children 12 years and older: Take 1 Aleve capsule or tablet every 8 to 12 hours while symptoms last. For the first dose you may take 2 capsules or tablets within the first hour. Do not exceed 2 capsules or tablets in any 8 to 12 hour period – do not exceed 3 capsules or tablets in a 24-hour period.

Drink a full glass of water with each dose. If taken with food, Aleve may take longer to work.

Store Aleve at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

Read all patient information, medication guides, and instruction sheets provided to you. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions.

What happens if I miss a dose?

Since Aleve is sometimes used only when needed, you may not be on a dosing schedule. If you are on a schedule, use the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not use extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.

What should I avoid while taking Aleve?

Avoid drinking alcohol. It may increase your risk of stomach bleeding.

Avoid taking aspirin while you are taking Aleve.

Ask a doctor or pharmacist before using any cold, allergy, or pain medicine. Many medicines available over the counter contain aspirin or other medicines similar to naproxen. Taking certain products together can cause you to get too much of this type of medication. Check the label to see if a medicine contains aspirin, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, or naproxen.

Ask your doctor before using an antacid, and use only the type your doctor recommends. Some antacids can make it harder for your body to absorb Aleve.

Aleve side effects

Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction to Aleve: sneezing, runny or stuffy nose; wheezing or trouble breathing; hives; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Get emergency medical help if you have signs of a heart attack or stroke: chest pain spreading to your jaw or shoulder, sudden numbness or weakness on one side of the body, slurred speech, feeling short of breath.

Stop using Aleve and call your doctor at once if you have:

shortness of breath (even with mild exertion);
swelling or rapid weight gain;
the first sign of any skin rash, no matter how mild;
signs of stomach bleeding – bloody or tarry stools, coughing up blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds;
liver problems – nausea, upper stomach pain, itching, tired feeling, flu-like symptoms, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes);
kidney problems – little or no urinating, painful or difficult urination, swelling in your feet or ankles, feeling tired or short of breath;
low red blood cells (anemia) – pale skin, feeling light-headed or short of breath, rapid heart rate, trouble concentrating; or
severe skin reaction – fever, sore throat, swelling in your face or tongue, burning in your eyes, skin pain followed by a red or purple skin rash that spreads (especially in the face or upper body) and causes blistering and peeling.
Common Aleve side effects may include:

indigestion, heartburn, stomach pain, nausea;
diarrhea, constipation;
headache, dizziness, drowsiness;
swelling in your hands or feet;
bruising, itching, rash, sweating; or
ringing in your ears.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

 

What other drugs will affect Aleve?

Ask your doctor before using Aleve if you take an antidepressant such as citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine (Prozac), fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline (Zoloft), trazodone, or vilazodone. Taking any of these medicines with an NSAID may cause you to bruise or bleed easily.

Ask a doctor or pharmacist if it is safe for you to use Aleve if you are also using any of the following drugs:

lithium;
methotrexate;
probenecid;
a blood thinner (warfarin, Coumadin, Jantoven);
heart or blood pressure medication, including a diuretic or “water pill”; or
steroid medicine (such as prednisone).
This list is not complete. Other drugs may interact with naproxen, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible interactions are listed in this medication guide.

Alkaloid

Alkaloids are a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Some synthetic compounds of similar structure are also termed alkaloids. In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur and, more rarely, other elements such as chlorine, bromine, and phosphorus.

Alkaloids are produced by a large variety of organisms including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They can be purified from crude extracts of these organisms by acid-base extraction. Alkaloids have a wide range of pharmacological activities including antimalarial (e.g. quinine), antiasthma (e.g. ephedrine), anticancer (e.g.homoharringtonine), cholinomimetic (e.g. galantamine), vasodilatory (e.g. vincamine), antiarrhythmic (e.g. quinidine), analgesic (e.g. morphine), antibacterial (e.g.chelerythrine), and antihyperglycemic activities (e.g. piperine). Many have found use in traditional or modern medicine, or as starting points for drug discovery. Other alkaloids possess psychotropic (e.g. psilocin) and stimulant activities (e.g. cocaine, caffeine, nicotine),  and have been used in entheogenic rituals or as recreational drugs. Alkaloids can be toxic too (e.g. atropine, tubocurarine). Although alkaloids act on a diversity of metabolic systems in humans and other animals, they almost uniformly evoke a bitter taste.[13]

The boundary between alkaloids and other nitrogen-containing natural compounds is not clear-cut. Compounds like amino acid peptides, proteins, nucleotides, nucleic acid, amines, and antibiotics are usually not called alkaloids. Natural compounds containing nitrogen in the exocyclic position (mescaline, serotonin, dopamine, etc.) are usually classified as amines rather than as alkaloids.[15] Some authors, however, consider alkaloids a special case of amines.

 

Allergy

An allergy is a reaction by your immune system to something that does not bother most other people. People who have allergies often are sensitive to more than one thing. Substances that often cause reactions areIllustration of a mast cell releasing histamine

  • Pollen
  • Dust mites
  • Mold spores
  • Pet dander
  • Food
  • Insect stings
  • Medicines

Normally, your immune system fights germs. It is your body’s defense system. In most allergic reactions, however, it is responding to a false alarm. Genes and the environment probably both play a role.

Allergies can cause a variety of symptoms such as a runny nose, sneezing, itching, rashes, swelling, or asthma. Allergies can range from minor to severe. Anaphylaxis is a severe reaction that can be life-threatening. Doctors use skin and blood tests to diagnose allergies. Treatments include medicines, allergy shots, and avoiding the substances that cause the reactions.

Anabolic Steroids

Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed puberty, and muscle loss from some diseases.

Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using them this way is not legal or safe. Abuse of anabolic steroids has been linked with many health problems. They include

  • Acne
  • Breast growth and shrinking of testicles in men
  • Voice deepening and growth of facial hair in women
  • High blood pressure
  • Heart problems, including heart attack
  • Liver disease, including cancer
  • Kidney damage
  • Aggressive behavior

Analgesic

An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.  Analgesic drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems. They are distinct from anesthetics, which reversibly eliminate sensation. Analgesics includeparacetamol (known in the US as acetaminophen or simply APAP), the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as the salicylates, and opioid drugs such asmorphine and oxycodone.

Major classes

  • Paracetamol and NSAIDs
  • COX-2 inhibitors
  • Opioids
  • Flupirtine
  • Specific agents

Anesthesia

If you are having surgery, your doctor will give you medicine called an anesthetic. Anesthetics reduce or prevent pain. There are three main types:

  • Local – numbs one small area of the body. You stay awake and alert.
  • Regional – blocks pain in an area of the body, such an arm or leg. A common type is epidural anesthesia, which is often used during childbirth.
  • General – makes you unconscious. You do not feel any pain, and you do not remember the procedure afterwards.

You may also get a mild sedative to relax you. You stay awake but may not remember the procedure afterwards. Sedation can be used with or without anesthesia.

The type of anesthesia or sedation you get depends on many factors. They include the procedure you are having and your current health.

Anesthetic

An anesthetic (anaesthetic or anæsthetic in British English) is a drug that causes anesthesia, which is a reversible loss of sensation. Anesthetics contrast with analgesics (painkillers), which relieve pain without eliminating sensation. These drugs are generally administered to facilitate surgery. A wide variety of drugs are used in modern anesthetic practice.

 

Many are rarely used outside of anesthesia, although others are used commonly by all disciplines. Anesthetics are categorized into two classes: general anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of consciousness, and local anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of sensation for a limited region of the body while maintaining consciousness.

Angina

Angina is chest pain or discomfort you feel when there is not enough blood flow to your heart muscle. Your heart muscle needs the oxygen that the blood carries. Angina may feel like pressure or a squeezing pain in your chest. It may feel like indigestion. You may also feel pain in your shoulders, arms, neck, jaw, or back.

Angina is a symptom of coronary artery disease (CAD), the most common heart disease. CAD happens when a sticky substance called plaque builds up in the arteries that supply blood to the heart, reducing blood flow.

There are three types of angina:

  • Stable angina is the most common type. It happens when the heart is working harder than usual. Stable angina has a regular pattern. Rest and medicines usually help.
  • Unstable angina is the most dangerous. It does not follow a pattern and can happen without physical exertion. It does not go away with rest or medicine. It is a sign that you could have a heart attack soon.
  • Variant angina is rare. It happens when you are resting. Medicines can help.

Not all chest pain or discomfort is angina. If you have chest pain, you should see your health care provider.

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